In fourteen ninety two, around the time that Columbus landed, the Ponca and Omaha Tribes gradually moved from east of the Mississippi to an area just west of the Missouri River. They drove out the Arikara Tribe and settled down. Sometime between thirteen ninety and seventeen fifty, the Ponca separated from the Omaha and settled around the Niobrara River. The Ponca hunted there, and planted small gardens. The tribe at its height probably numbered eight hundred individuals. In eighteen fifty eight, the Ponca signed a treaty with the US government that gave up all the land the Ponca were occupying, and reserved a small area between the Niobrara River and Ponca Creek. In return, the tribe was promised money for 30 years, schools, a grist mill, and a saw mill. By eighteen sixty five, the Poncas were being attacked from the west by the Sioux, and were not getting timely payments or the mills from the US government. So, they negotiated a new treaty signed in eighteen sixty five. They had to move further east, onto land that included agricultural land and their traditional burial grounds.